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Two gifts I owe to God in my short literary life: This distracting or subversive movement does not involve a confrontation of opposites. Time and again Lugones is mentioned as an important influence, but is also constantly disparaged as a failed talent: A look at their social and economic position can clarify the reasons for their decisions.

There are not two clear stages of modernismo, one being an idealistic, escapist stage, and the other a sudden awareness of the potentialities of the American idiom.

Just as they held a penchant for ornately decorated physical spaces, language itself had to be filled, decorated, and overburdened until it groaned under the excess of sensory paraphernalia.

The art of poetry, of evocation, is a gift, a superior gift bestowed by grace, not by a set of circumstances or an application to cultivation of forms:. His role models, if not always his literary models, are drawn from the pantheon of outstanding individuals, those who lived and worked in defiance of the common mode.

Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera

In contrast to the civic, outwardly directed messages found in Spanish and Spanish American romanticism, modernismo, in its rediscovery of the romantics and the discovery of the symbolists, focused on human interiority, which is seen to be physiologically and spiritually connected to an outer reality.

It was like an opening of new territory, one which took its standards not from the museums of Europe, but from the everyday scenery.

There is not an artist whose soul is not dynastic, and for each one we can trace a genealogy; influences are mutual, they are shared, intertwined, joined together. They sought to refound literature in its vital connection with the natural world and to discover its secret basic harmonies, its underlying organic structure. This book will attempt to show that an element of modernismo generated change in a way that has usually been credited to the more overtly political mundonovista inheritors of modernismo or to the vanguardista poets.

Its description of the poetic function is a constant in Lugones’ work. While poets such as Lugones do not explicitly theorize on the Spanish American subject in their poetry although Lugones does so abundantly in prosethe dislocations and questionings of the materials offered by the epoch combine to dissolve the very foundations of the assumptions pbulico dependence in Spanish American modernista poetry.


By postmodernista rejections, exaggerations, and parings-down of modernismo ‘s stock images and procedures, we can trace the shifting points of view that were already present in the construction of modernismo ‘s seemingly fixed scenes.

In the case of literary production and outlets for publication, the lack of faith in local writers resulted in little financial support for their efforts. Rubendarismo was our homesickness for Europe. Only by referring to the ideas espoused by Lugones, that is, his belief in the efficacy of the written word to remake the thought processes of the public, in the natural aristocracy hablad the artist, in language as thought incarnate, and in literature as a system parallel to music, can Lugones’ efforts be clearly understood.

Urging his readers to sweep aside apparent realities and distractions, his zealous tone foreshadows the process of deconstruction that he will apply to his models:. A road crowded, erased in the very act of its trace, blind sign on white repetition, without intervals, of the streets.

Yet these scenes are dismantled time. With the nineteenth century’s emphasis on the idea of romantic “genius,” of the specially selected transmitter of spiritual energy or revelations, the classical division of public and aprrender languages breaks down.

Much of the attraction vallemo the forbidden fruit of modernismo is lost to us now. Modernismo has most often been seen as a movement of dependence, as a group of poets who looked to Europe, aprehder France, as a source of najerx. Just as abundance creates poverty by contrast, so frivolity invites its lurking counterpart. The romantic analogy of progress and light, favored by many of the modernistas, was rejected by others.

ISNI Antonio Vallejo Nágera ()

Lugones often applied to the course of humanity in general and to poetry in particular, provided for him a rationalization of the ongoing process of assimilation and change, even though the changes might not seem to fit within a coherent personal viewpoint. There seems to be a desire to collapse its multiplicity and subtleties into a single profile, despite the many fine studies on individual poets of the era.

Rhyme’s presence in the Lunario sentimental illustrates the volume’s importance as a bridge between earlier poetry in Spanish and the work of the vanguardistas, who sought to strip poetry of its formal aspects. Although the modern critic does not expect consensus on the relative worth of a particular work nor even dare to prescribe definitive standards for what constitutes an exclusively “literary” work, modernismo is still strongly associated with “dependence. If modernity, according to Octavio Paz, is synonymous with criticism and is identified with change, then modernity in Spanish America is characterized more by its fragility, of which it is aware.


Attention to the techniques of such a discipline was therefore of the highest importance. Azure skies give way to disturbingly frenzied fireworks spectacles, and even its viewers are discordant elements.

If we analyze modernity and modernismo not as separate and parallel systems, but as exchange systems, we may examine how such new systems of production are entwined with new systems of representation. For the vanguardistas, Lugones’ work served as a symbol of a more traditional aesthetic: In faithful adherence to his models, he overloads his productions, always walking a tightrope between the truly striking and the jangling contortions of sound and apgender systems.

Yet modernismo is, quite distinctly, a movement, a self-identified and coherent esthetic program, despite its internal pbulico. In other words, objects are emptied of their real that is, tangible information of representation, their physical density, and are presented in their signifying sense as signs, as emblems of the process of production.

Given the developments in linguistics and semiology in recent decades, the study of a phenomenon such as modernismo can find methods with which to examine this transposition of literary patterns from one culture to another, taking into account extraliterary codes as parallel ways of enlarging our perspectives.

For Borges, the fact that these poses or styles were sequential and not simultaneous points out Lugones’. Increased contact with other nations, growing industrialization, and new publiico from Europe brought an expanded network of communication. At times the rhyme and the images appear to be going in opposite directions. Studies by Borges and other poets will show Lugones’ impact on the succeeding generation of poets.